Types of human cells

Unique stem cells

  • Stem cells are cells with the unique capacity to self replicate throughout the life of an organism and differentiate into Cells of various tissues when prompted by the appropriate signals
  • Great potential for repair and regeneration 
  • There are 2 main groups of stem cells: Embryonic Stem Cells & Adult Stem Cells
  • Our expertise and focus is on Adult Stem Cells, a group known as Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Early Differentiated Connective Tissue Progenitor Cells)
  • The role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they reside
  • In the event of major injury or degeneration, the need for MSCs far exceeds the amount found in the tissue
  • MSCs from the bone marrow are then called to contribute to the repairing process

© UMASS Medical School, International Stem Cell Registry

Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Totipotent cells obtained from embryos that are only a few days old
  • Great potential to replicate themselves when exposed to appropriate conditions
  • Can be manipulated to many types of cells of the adult tissues
  • Due to ethical reason and possibility of teratogenicity and possible formation of tumors, ESCs are mainly used in laboratory experiments

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

  • Adults stem cells manipulated to change into pluripotent behaving cells like ESCs
  • No need to dispose of an embryo hence less ethical issues
  • Good for experimentation and research purposes
  • Discovered by Nobel Prize Winning scientist, Shinya Yamanaka in 2006

© Catherine Twomey

Adult Stromal Cells (Mesenchymal Stem Cells) – used in our treatment

  • Human adult stem cells obtained from umbilical cord, cord blood, bone marrow, fat or skin
  • Used to treat diseases
  • MSC carry unique properties as compared to other adult stem cells in a body
  • MSC can differentiate into cells of various adult tissues, including bones, cartilage, adipose tissue, muscle (including cardiomyocytes), cells of vascular endothelium, nerve cells, liver cells etc.
  • MSC is the most characteristic type of stem cells with high plasticity (ability to produce a different system’s stem cells).

Why use MSC

  • MSC can be cultured from a small portion of cells of bone marrow or other tissues taken within a diagnostic puncture;
  • Intravenously transplanted MSC are capable of selective penetration (homing) into damaged parts of organs and tissues, where they have angiogenic, antiapoptotic, antioxidant and mitogenic effects (paracrine effects);
  • MSC transplantation can launch regeneration processes in vital organs of human body such as the heart, brain, lungs etc.;
  • Systemic MSC transplantation dramatically enhances acceptance of transplanted organs (it is already practiced in liver transplantation);
  • Safety of systemic and local transplantation of both autologous and allogenic MSC has been confirmed in experimental and clinical conditions

Therapeutic Effect of Recruited MSC